Sample and hold amplifier
Sample and hold amplifier freeze analog voltage instantly. During this process the HOLD command is issued and analog voltage is available for an extended period. In analog-to-digital conversion, the importance of using a sample-and-hold amplifier chip (SHA chip) with a successive-approximation analog digital converter (ADC) is emphasized. In fact, if the input voltage to be digitized is varying, a sample-and-hold amplifier chip is mandatory. ADCs with more precision cannot give their advertised accuracy without a sample-and-hold amplifier chip. Its basic function is to transform input continuous signals into discrete time signals and amplify them. There are two types of SHA chips, high SHA chips and low SHA chips. The basic function of both is the same but power consumption is more in high SHA chips than in low SHA chips. Sample-and-hold amplifier chips are commonly available.
Sample-and-hold amplifiers have a monolithic sample-and-hold circuit consisting of a high performance operational amplifier in series with an ultra-low leakage analog switch and a FET input integrating amplifier. A SHA chip presents very high input impedance, and its bandwidth is considerable. When the control is changed to hold, below 1.4 V, the sampled voltage is held on a hold capacitor and the output voltage is frozen at that point. There is a settling time after the HOLD command is issued, until the output is within 1 mV of its steady value. After the HOLD command is issued, the aperture time is the time after which changes of the input voltage no longer affect the output voltage. The acquisition time is the time for the internal nodes to settle, and the output to be within, say, 0.1% of its final value, when a 10 V step is made at the input. The acquisition time depends on the size of the hold capacitor. Times from the HOLD command issuance are measured from the 1.4 V point of the control waveform. A multiplexer (MUX) combines two or more inputs into a single output. In electronics, the multiplexer combines several electrical signals into a single signal. There are different types of multiplexers for analog and digital circuits. Sample-and-hold amplifiers are designed and manufactured to meet most industry specifications.
Sample-and-hold amplifiers are used in many applications. Examples include their use in signal processing, analog-to-digital conversions, sensors, and imaging. Sample-and-hold amplifier chips are key building blocks for many discrete time signal processing applications.