dc offset minimization technique

• improving isolation between RF and LO paths ;
• sub-harmonic or super-harmonic mixing–with an LO at some integer multipleor fraction of the RF, DC-offsets due to LO self-mixing can be significantly
suppressed ;
• DC-free coding at the transmitter–by removing the signal content at DC, reasonable
high pass filtering can be employed, particularly for wideband channels
(e.g. CDMA) ;
• offset calibration techniques – digital sample-and-hold feedback, offset estimation
with corrective feedback at baseband, and servo loops, can be used to track
the DC-offset and remove it from the desired spectrum