Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute
CEERI: At A Glance
Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, popularly known as CEERI, is a constituent establishment of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. The foundation stone of the institute was laid on 21st September , 1953 by the then Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. The actual R&D work started towards the end of 1958. The Institute (CEERI) has since blossomed into a center of excellence for development of technology and for advanced research in electronics. Over the years the institute has developed a number of products and processes and has established facilities to meet the emerging needs of electronics industry.
CEERI, Pilani is a pioneer research institute in the country and a constituent laboratory of CSIR, New Delhi, established in 1957, for advanced Research and Development(R&D) in the field of Electronics. Since in inception it has been working for the growth of electronics in the country and has established the required infrastructure and well experienced man power for undertaking R & D in the following three major areas:
The activities of Microwave Tubes and Semiconductor Devices areas are done at Pilani, where as the activities of Electronic Systems area are undertaken at Pilani as well as at two centers of the institute at Delhi and Chennai. The institute has excellent computing facilities with many Pentium computers and SUN/DEC workstations interlinking with internet and E-mail facilities via VSAT. The institute has well maintained library with a outstanding collection of books and current periodicals published all over the world. The manpower keeps abreast with the latest technologies by working in frontier areas and by interactions with foreign dignitaries through different exchange programs.
CEERI with its over 700 highly skilled and dedicated staff members, well equipped laboratories and supporting infrastructure is all set to take up the challenging tasks of research and development in the above areas.
R & D ACTIVITIES AT CEERI
The main thrust of the R & D efforts traditionally carried out by CEERI has been directed towards the collaborative or grant-in-aid research projects, funded by Government Departments and Government funded user agencies and to a lesser extent, towards in-house development projects resulting in technological know-how which can be transferred to Indian industries. With the dwindling support for capital resources needed for state -of-the-art research, it has now become much more difficult to find the support for developmental activities, which can lead to competitive products or process of interest to industry.
The R & D activities of CEERI can be broadly classified into three major areas viz. Semiconductor Devices, Electronics System and Microwave Tubes. There are over 12 groups working on various projects on the frontiers of knowledge in these three trust areas. The major trust areas in which CEERI is presently concentrating its efforts are:
MICROWAVE TUBES: for defence and communication.
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES : including, Power devices, Millimeter wave devices, Microelectronic devices and Hybrid microcircuits.
ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS: for Industrial and transportation applications.
VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS :
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AREA :
(a)Microwave Devices Processing
ELECTRONICS SYSTEMS AREA :
MICROWAVE TUBES AREA :
CEERI has set up two chapters, one at Delhi and the other at Madras.New Delhi chapter, has specialised in museum electronics, audio visual systems, and speech technology with special reference to voice communication with machines. CEERI Center, Madras, has specialised in development of process control instrumentation for paper & pulp industry. The significant R & D and infrastructural facilities at the institute are :
·For Semiconductor Devices :VLSI design center, mask making, diffusion, thin film coating, Ion implantation, Plasma etching, material growth facilities, Hybrid microcircuits fabrication Lab, electron microscopes, CAD & CAM facility, etc.
·For Electron Tube fabrication controlled atmosphere furnaces, ultra high vacuum processing and glass blowing section, chemical cleaning, precision machining etc.
·For Electronic System : microprocessor development system, PCB facility, specialised measuring instruments for the development of process control equipment and power electronic equipment, etc.
·Infrastructure :Computer Center, Workshops, Drawing Section, Batch Production and Technology Transfer unit, Engineering Services, including uninterrupted electricity supply, water supply and civil engineering, Environmental Testing facility Test, and calibration section, Metal Finishing section etc.
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AREA
Semiconductor Devices area has excellent centralized facilities for the computer- aided design and fabrication of the microcircuits. The fabricationinclude: Mask making, Ion Implantation, Diffusion and Oxidation, Chemical Vapour Deposition photolithography, Dry Etching. Metallization and testing facilities
Scientists working in this area have successfully developed 3 micron CMOS technology using advanced processing techniques. A number of bipolar devices-p-i-n diode for Neutron dosimetey, BU208D transistors, and high power Schottky diodes have been fabricated. Microwave devices, such as W-band silicon IMPATTs have been fabricated and tested for strategic applications. Space- qualified metallisation of alumina substrates has been established. The design group has designed a 16/32 bit microprocessor VLSI based design, simulation and synthesis environment.
Work is being done on different types of silicon based sensors such as chemical gases, pressure, humidity, and strain gauge sensors, in collaboration with the Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany.
Opto-Electronic devices such as InGaAs/nPPin/APD photo detectors, optical receivers for a range of data rates between 8 MBps to 2.48 GBps are being developed. The design and technology of C-band high power GaAs FET for strategic application have been established. Work is being done for laser array packing, Development of 980 nm pump laser for EDFA applications, Silica on silicon based IC components for dense WDM applications – to develop silica deposition process using flame hydrolysis on silicon suitable for fabrication of integrated components, to develop integrated technology for WDM components using indigenously deposited silica on silicon substrate e.g. optical beam splitter arrayed wave guide grating multiplexer,.
Hybrid Microcircuits (HMC) technology is another flexible way of converting electric circuit into a microcircuit. All the required facilities for this process are available in CEERI. HMCs developed by the group were integrated in SROSS-I, SROSS-II,INSAT-II,INSAT-IIA, INSAT-IIB, INSAT-IIC satellites.
In the area of semiconductor devices ,CEERI has developed various devices such as 1700 v/1300Amp high speed switching thyristors, 100 and 300 Amp Darlington transistors; ASIC chips for exchange subscribers line (40 pin), Programmable AD/C interface and PWM signal generator and signal data path PWM AC motor drives.
(a) Reticle Design for Wafer Stepper
(a)Hybrid Microcircuit for INSAT-2D Satellite
(b)Alumina Bias Circuit Board for IR Detectors
(c)A new process for Conductor Fabrication in PowerThick-film HMCs/MICs
(a)VHDL Design of Telecommunication Microprocessor
(b)Training on VLSI-Design to Industry and Academia
(a)Silicon Microchannel formed by Anisotropic Etching
(b)Glass to Silicon Anodic Bonding
(a)Hybrid PIN/FET Receiver Modules working at 68 MBps
(b)GaAs Power MESFET unit processes
(c)Designed and built PECVD/RIE System operation
(a)600,4.3 KVHigh Voltage Rectifier
(a)Optimization and characterization of PECVD
(b)Silicon Varactor Diodes for TV Tuner
Semiconductor Devices are used in a whole variety of consumer and professional applications. The miraculous silicon chips, have become a householdword. In this area, CEERI has received valuable assistance from the Development Program.After success completion of the first phase of this project, a second phase is underway. This will cover power devices, such as transistors for AC motor drives, and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for Transportation & Industrial Applications.
CEERI is the first laboratory in the country to develop hybrid micro-circuits which have been qualified for space applications. These qualifications tests are very stringent, and include accelerations up to 20,000g. the know-how has been transferred to industry. Monolithic integration involves putting several thousand components on a silicon chip of a few sq. mm area. Some ASICs have been carried through the whole range of operations from initial simulation and design through all stages of fabrication. Typical examples are 8-bit counters, microchip for 32-line electronic telephone exchange and signal processing chip for VEM bus compatible microprocessor based system for PWM AC Motor Drives for Transportation.
Microwave Tubes Area
CEERI has been doing pioneering work in the area of microwave tubes since 1958, the year of its inception. Over the years its capabilities have grown considerably both in terms of expertise and facilities. It has now excellent design and technology base. The products developed here are a testimony to it. CEERI’s achievements have contributed significantly towards import substitution and self reliance. Various user agencies are approaching CEERI for development of sophisticated tubes to meet their newer requirements. CEERI is well equipped with necessary facilities to go through various stages involved in development work. A few important facilities are:
·Facilities for all type of glass working , glass-metal sealing are ceramic-metal sealing.
·Workshops with precision machines including machine for Helix winding and inspection tools.
·Auger Electron Spectrometer.
·SEM, EDAX & TEM.
ASSEMBLY AND PROCESSING:
·Clean air flow benches, spot welders, microscopes, precision, assembly tools, etc.
·Chemistry section for electron tube grade cleaning, electroplating and chemical analysis.
·Furnaces for brazing and heat treatment up to 1500C in controlled atmosphere or high vacuum.
·DC sputtering system, Residual gas analyzers, Helium leak detectors.
·Ultra high vacuum system for processing of tubes with bake out facilities upto 650C.
·Magnet charger and treater, TIG welding machine.
·Sweep oscillators, Scalar and Vector network analyzer and microwave components for cold RF measurementscovering L-to Ka-band.
·High voltage DC supplies, modulators, electromagnets, waterloads, dryloads, power meters, etc. for environmental high power measurements.
·Retarding field potential analyser for work function measurement.
·Vibrating testing systems, shock test equipments, bump test systems, humidity chamber, etc. for environmental tests.
CEERI has developed high technology components such as microwave tubes. These are items used in radar sets and communication systems. Travelling wave tubes have been developed at CERRI for ISRO. The microwave tube group has developed ‘Klystron’ which is used in troposcatter communication links. Besides technology, CEERI has also developed the components, jigs and fixtures and assembly tools.
1.Mini-TWT delivers 25W RF output power over frequency band
7.5-18GHzand40W at 12GHz.
2.Two prototypes of C-band 70KW Coupled-Cavity TWT testing.
3.1KW CW L/S-band Klystron.
4.2W CW S-band TWT.
5.20W CW C-band TWT.
1.2-MW Pulsed Tuneable Magnetron delivered.
2.New project on specific MWT.
In the area of communication, defence and industrial application CEERI has successfully developed know-how of technology microwave tubes such as magnetrons, muti-cavity Klystrons, TWTs, and devices such as medium and high power flash tubes, power triodes, induction heating equipment etc.
ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS AREA
The main objective of the Electronic Systems area (ESA) is to provide complete system level solutions to Indian Industry. CEERI has entered several key sectors viz. Agro based and Process control Industries. Energy, Transportation, Consumer Electronics, Speech and Telephony etc. and developed field proven technologies during last two decades. Currently the emphasis is being laid in modernising these core sector industries. The scientists of this area closely interact with industry and academic institutions and have international collaborative projects with counterparts from Australia, Germany, Italy, UK and USA.
For the automation of unit operations in the agro and process control industries such as Sugar, Paper and pulp, Leather, Wood and Tea, a number of sensors and systems based on microprocessor, micro-controller and PC’s have been developed and field tested successfully. The know- how of these systems has been transferred to entrepreneurs and these are produced and supplied to user industries on commercial basis. Retrofit automation programs are currently going on at two paper mill and one sugar mill to propagate the technologies and modernise the industries .The systems developed are based on the state of the art technologies employing Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), distributed digital control systems, local area networks. soft-sensing techniques, neuro- fuzzy and advanced control algorithms etc. In addition to these activities ESA is expanding its horizon by taking up challenges of instrumentation and control for leather industry mushroom cultivation, food processing, distilleries, greenhouse cultivation etc. It is also working towards the development of Profibus compatible smart transmitter for use in industrial networks using one of the widely used field-bus standards. ESA is also working for Industrial. Transportation and Power Sectors . Different types of inverters, converters, drive and UPS are successfully developed and commercialised. Induction motor drive system for an Electric Vehicle.10kVA UPS, Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), brushless dc motor and synchronous reluctance motor etc. are being developed. Advanced control techniques such as vector control, robust sliding mode, and neuro-fuzzy algorithms are being implemented in these activities.
CEERI had been a pioneer for R& D in the field of television. Recent developments in this area consist of the NICAM receiver for digital stereo/bilingual sound and Integrated Receiver Decoder (IRD) for satellite based TV reception according for MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) standards. These are plans to extend this work using the techniques of high speed ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) channel along with multimedia for different applications.
Digital mapping system (DIGIMAP) for digitising the maps for survey of India has been developed. Work is in progress on Geo Referencing Area Management Network system (GRAMNET) and other GIS-based technologies for local development planning.
Active work is going on in the areas of speech synthesis and speech recognition. Phonetic database of Hindi words is developed. Successfully completed the acoustic analysis of Hindi Germinates and developed Isolated Word Recognition Systems (IWRS) with different vocabulary sizes. This has been implemented along with a stepper motor controller for voice operated wheel chair. Work is in progress to make speaker-independent IWRS.
2Retrofit Automation of Sugar Mill
3Monitoring and Control System for Tea Manufacturing Process.
1NICAM Decoder for reception of Stereo Sound in TV sets
2RF-Head for SQUID Electronics
3PC-Based Interface for Rapid Thermal Processing.
1DC Drive for Mining Locomotive
2Controller for RTP System